The Infertile Couple

The Infertile Couple

Definitions • Fecundability – The probability of conceiving during a single monthly cycle. In “normally fertile” couples it is 20–25%, with a cumulative 85–90% chance of pregnancy within 12 months. • Infertility – The inability to conceive after 12 months...
Amenorrhea (No Periods)

Amenorrhea (No Periods)

Definition – 1 No menses by age 14 years and no other evidence of pubertal development. 2 no menses by age 16 despite the presence of other pubertal signs. 3 previous menstrual cycles but now without menses for a time equivalent to three cycles or 6 months. •...
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Definition – The occurrence of repeated (three or more consecutive) pregnancies that end in miscarriage of the fetus, usually before 20 weeks of gestation. • Prevalence – One percent of women of reproductive age who conceive. Diagnostic evaluation of...
Urinary Incontinence

Urinary Incontinence

Definition – Involuntary leakage of urine that is sufficient enough in frequency and amount to cause physical and/or emotional distress. Frequency – Highly prevalent in women across their adult lifespan and severity increases linearly with age in women...
Self-Examination of Breasts

Self-Examination of Breasts

Introduction Ninety percent of breast cancers are found by the woman or her partner. For this reason, women must understand the importance of examining the breast every month. During pregnancy, there is no special time of the month that is best to reform the...
Breast Diseases

Breast Diseases

Anatomy and Development  The breasts are large, modified sebaceous glands contained within the superficial fascia of the anterior chest wall. The average weight is 200–300 g during the menstruating years. Composed of 20% glands and 80% fat and connective tissue....