Drugs and Medications

Drugs and Medications

Incidence • Of women 20–25% report using medications on a regular basis throughout pregnancy. • Major congenital anomalies occur in 3–4% of live births and 70% of such anomalies have no known cause. It is estimated that 2–3% are due to medications and 1% to...
Thyroid Disease

Thyroid Disease

Thyroid physiology • Circulating thyroxine (levothyroxine, T4) and l-triiodothyronine (T3) are bound primarily to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) with <1% circulating as free (biologically active) hormone. • Iodine is required for thyroid hormone production and...
Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Physiology Pregnancy is a “diabetogenic state” with increased insulin resistance and reduced peripheral uptake of glucose (due to placental hormones with anti-insulin activity). In this way, the fetus has a continuous supply of glucose. Incidence Three to five percent...
Hypertensive Disorders

Hypertensive Disorders

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the second most common cause of maternal death, accounting for 15% of all maternal deaths. Effects of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system: • Blood volume increases 800 ml by 12 weeks (1.5 l in twins). • Blood...
Abdominal Pain

Abdominal Pain

Abdominal Pain with Pregnancy (A) Pregnancy Related Pain: (I) First trimester: 1. Abortion: Inevitable, incomplete or septic abortions. 2. Vesicular mole: when expulsion starts. 3. Ectopic pregnancy: pain precedes bleeding. (II) Second trimester: 1.Mid-trimester...
Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases

Bacterial Infections Group B streptococcus • Incidence. In developed countries, neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) sepsis complicates 1.8/1,000 live births. • Maternal signs/symptoms. Of all pregnant women, 20% are asymptomatically colonized in the vaginal or...